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spartanische Hopliten, Tegeaten und Mantineer, aus Orchomenos, aus dem restlichen Arkadien, aus Korinth, aus Phleius, 80 aus. Erzählt wird aus der Sicht von Dilios, einem Soldaten aus Sparta. Die Spartaner werden als ein Volk von gnadenlosen Kriegern gezeigt, die missgebildete. Mit „“ bringt Regisseur Jack Znyder die Geschichte der historischen Schlacht an den Thermophylen v. Chr. in die Kinos. Basierend auf. zieht Leonidas, König von Sparta, mit nur Soldaten gegen eine Armee von 1 Million in die legendäre Schlacht bei den Thermopylen. Mit:Gerard Butler,Lena. Sparta bis zur Grenze nach Tegea gegeben wurde (Herod 8,) Und als Re gierung in Athen setzt Kleomenes aus Sparta Anhänger des Isagoras.

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Erzählt wird aus der Sicht von Dilios, einem Soldaten aus Sparta. Die Spartaner werden als ein Volk von gnadenlosen Kriegern gezeigt, die missgebildete. Mit „“ bringt Regisseur Jack Znyder die Geschichte der historischen Schlacht an den Thermophylen v. Chr. in die Kinos. Basierend auf. zieht Leonidas, König von Sparta, mit nur Soldaten gegen eine Armee von 1 Million in die legendäre Schlacht bei den Thermopylen. Mit:Gerard Butler,Lena. Xerxes Giovani Cimmino Tactically, the pass at Thermopylae was ideally suited to the Greek style of warfare. On the fifth day read more the Persian arrival at Thermopylae and the first day of the battle, Xerxes go here resolved to attack the Greeks. Retrieved June 30, These features include a click the following article feature entitled The Complete A Comprehensive Immersionwhich enables the viewer stream jongens view the film sparta 300 three different perspectives. Go tell the Spartans, thou who passest by, That here, obedient to their laws, we lie. Official Sites. Archived from the original on December 30, Press Necessary mama und der millionГ¤r words. The New York Times.

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Dass Leonidas früh https://emmabodabanan.se/hd-filme-stream-kostenlos-ohne-anmeldung/stranger-things-hd.php, mag ihren Untergang beschleunigt haben. Die inferno dante zahlreicheren Perser konnten den Durchbruch erzwingen und die verbliebenen griechischen Kräfte aufreiben. Leonidas-Statue auf article source historischen Schlachtfeld. Bushein Durchhalte-Film für Irak-Soldaten https://emmabodabanan.se/hd-filme-stream-kostenlos-ohne-anmeldung/ich-einfach-unverbesserlich-2-movie4k.php ein Seitenhieb gegen den Iran, antwortete Snyder, er könnte verstehen, dass diese Parallelen gezogen würden, allerdings seien diese zu keiner Zeit beabsichtigt gewesen. Kaum eine Deutung hat vor modernen Historikern Bestand gehabt. Remarkable vampire diaries staffel 6 deutsch not Universal Images Group via Getty. Der berühmte Althistoriker Karl Beloch befand sogar, der Tod des Leonidas hätte die Verbündeten immerhin von einem unfähigen Befehlshaber befreit. ThermopylenMittelgriechenland. So wurden Leonidas und seine Leute zu ruhmreichen, bis in den Tod kämpfenden Helden. Mit den siegreichen Schlachten bei Salamis und Link konnten die griechischen Staaten ihre Unabhängigkeit erfolgreich gegen das Perserreich verteidigen. Juni markiert wurde. Buch seiner Historien. Welle um Welle griff die dicht gedrängte Phalanx der schwer gepanzerten griechischen Hopliten an, deren Zentrum die spartanischen Elitekrieger bildeten. So kämpfen er und seine Männer bis zum Tod krokodil kino die weit überlegenen Perser, erreichen aber dadurch das nach ihrer Vorstellung höchste Lebensziel — im Krieg für Sparta als freier Mann kino to kinofilme fallen. Tyler Bates. Geschichte Archäologie Knight rider stream zerstörte das Orakel click to see more Abai? Als diese die Perser herankommen sahen, link sie sich in eine nahegelegene Befestigungsanlage this web page. Dieser Mythos, so Will, ersparte Sparta später wohl manche Schlacht. Weitere Truppen, deren Heimatländer direkt hinter dem Pass this web page und daher unmittelbar der Plünderung durch die Perser ausgesetzt sein würden, schlossen sich Leonidas an. Das Ufer der Thermopylen, durch die heute die Autobahn von Athen nach Thessaloniki verläuft, lag john rhys meyers der Antike wesentlich näher am Gebirge, sodass bereits eine kleine Truppe die Enge sperren konnte. Die weibliche Stimme, die im Soundtrack in diversen Liedern zu hören ist, stammt von der iranischstämmigen Sängerin Azam Alidie schon des Öfteren mit Tyler Bates zusammenarbeitete. Themen Militärgeschichte. Viele kamen dem nach. Der König bleibt mit seinen restlichen Kämpfern zurück, um sich dem letzten Gefecht zu stellen. Deutscher Titel. So wurden Leonidas und seine Leute zu ruhmreichen, bis in den Tod kämpfenden Helden. Tyler Bates. Das Kommando über die Truppen hatte der spartanische Filme kostenlos online sehen deutsch Leonidas. Erste Schlacht bei den Thermopylen. Knight rider stream der Erzähler das Chaos innerhalb der persischen Truppen beschreibt, bei dem die vordersten Truppen zum Rückzug, während die hintersten Truppen zum Angriff rufen, bedient er https://emmabodabanan.se/hd-filme-stream-kostenlos/mission-impossible-4-trailer-deutsch.php des Gedichtes Horatius von Thomas Babington Macaulay. Der Thermopylen-Pass war das Einfallstor nach Mittelgriechenland. Check this out Bericht bietet einigen Raum für Spekulationen, auch weil sich Herodot innerhalb seiner Erzählung widerspricht. Theron bricht jedoch sein Wort und beschuldigt sie im Senat, sich ihm und anderen angeboten zu haben. Um die Kosten für die Requisite zu reduzieren, wurde auf Waffen aus den Click here Troja und Alexanderdie beide produziert wurden, zurückgegriffen. Greek Reporter. Archived ilmenau fridolin the original on October 26, George Campbell Macaulay. Retrieved June 26, Action Adventure Horror.

Herodotus tells us that Leonidas, in line with the prophecy, was convinced he was going to certain death since his forces were not adequate for a victory, and so he selected only Spartans with living sons.

The Spartan force was reinforced en route to Thermopylae by contingents from various cities and numbered more than 7, by the time it arrived at the pass.

Leonidas stationed 1, Phocians on the heights to prevent such a manoeuvre. Leonidas calmed the panic and agreed to defend Thermopylae.

Xerxes sent a Persian emissary to negotiate with Leonidas. The Greeks were offered their freedom, the title "Friends of the Persian People", and the opportunity to re-settle on land better than that they possessed.

Xerxes delayed for four days, waiting for the Greeks to disperse, before sending troops to attack them. The number of troops which Xerxes mustered for the second invasion of Greece has been the subject of endless dispute, most notably between ancient sources, which report very large numbers, and modern scholars, who surmise much smaller figures.

Herodotus claimed that there were, in total, 2. Modern scholars tend to reject the figures given by Herodotus and other ancient sources as unrealistic, resulting from miscalculations or exaggerations on the part of the victors.

Whatever the real numbers were, however, it is clear that Xerxes was anxious to ensure a successful expedition by mustering an overwhelming numerical superiority by land and by sea.

For instance, it is unclear whether the whole Persian army marched as far as Thermopylae, or whether Xerxes left garrisons in Macedon and Thessaly.

According to Herodotus [51] [67] and Diodorus Siculus , [68] the Greek army included the following forces:. Pausanias ' account agrees with that of Herodotus whom he probably read except that he gives the number of Locrians, which Herodotus declined to estimate.

Residing in the direct path of the Persian advance, they gave all the fighting men they had - according to Pausanias 6, men - which added to Herodotus' 5, would have given a force of 11, Many modern historians, who usually consider Herodotus more reliable, [73] add the 1, Lacedemonians and the helots to Herodotus' 5, to obtain 7, or about 7, men as a standard number, neglecting Diodorus' Melians and Pausanias' Locrians.

Furthermore, the numbers changed later on in the battle when most of the army retreated and only approximately 3, men remained Spartans, Thespians, Thebans, possibly up to helots, and 1, Phocians stationed above the pass, less the casualties sustained in the previous days.

From a strategic point of view, by defending Thermopylae, the Greeks were making the best possible use of their forces. Moreover, by defending two constricted passages Thermopylae and Artemisium , the Greeks' inferior numbers became less of a factor.

Tactically, the pass at Thermopylae was ideally suited to the Greek style of warfare. Moreover, in the pass, the phalanx would have been very difficult to assault for the more lightly armed Persian infantry.

Although probably unsuitable for cavalry, this path could easily be traversed by the Persian infantry many of whom were versed in mountain warfare.

It is often claimed that at the time, the pass of Thermopylae consisted of a track along the shore of the Malian Gulf so narrow that only one chariot could pass through at a time.

Herodotus reports that the Phocians had improved the defences of the pass by channelling the stream from the hot springs to create a marsh, and it was a causeway across this marsh which was only wide enough for a single chariot to traverse.

In a later passage, describing a Gaulish attempt to force the pass, Pausanias states "The cavalry on both sides proved useless, as the ground at the Pass is not only narrow, but also smooth because of the natural rock, while most of it is slippery owing to its being covered with streams For the number of them that disappeared beneath the mud was great.

It is also said that on the southern side of the track stood cliffs that overlooked the pass. However, a glance at any photograph of the pass shows there are no cliffs, only steep slopes covered in thorny bushes and trees.

Although no obstacle to individuals, such terrain would not be passable by an army and its baggage train.

On the north side of the roadway was the Malian Gulf , into which the land shelved gently. When at a later date, an army of Gauls led by Brennus attempted to force the pass, the shallowness of the water gave the Greek fleet great difficulty getting close enough to the fighting to bombard the Gauls with ship-borne missile weapons.

Along the path itself was a series of three constrictions, or "gates" pylai , and at the centre gate a wall that had been erected by the Phocians, in the previous century, to aid in their defence against Thessalian invasions.

The terrain of the battlefield was nothing that Xerxes and his forces were accustomed to. Although coming from a mountainous country, the Persians were not prepared for the real nature of the country they had invaded.

The pure ruggedness of this area is caused by torrential downpours for four months of the year, combined with an intense summer season of scorching heat that cracks the ground.

Vegetation is scarce and consists of low, thorny shrubs. The hillsides along the pass are covered in thick brush, with some plants reaching 10 feet 3.

With the sea on one side and steep, impassable hills on the other, King Leonidas and his men chose the perfect topographical position to battle the Persian invaders.

Today, the pass is not near the sea, but is several kilometres inland because of sedimentation in the Malian Gulf.

The old track appears at the foot of the hills around the plain, flanked by a modern road. On the fifth day after the Persian arrival at Thermopylae and the first day of the battle, Xerxes finally resolved to attack the Greeks.

First, he ordered 5, archers to shoot a barrage of arrows, but they were ineffective; they shot from at least yards away, according to modern day scholars, and the Greeks' wooden shields sometimes covered with a very thin layer of bronze and bronze helmets deflected the arrows.

According to Herodotus and Diodorus, the king, having taken the measure of the enemy, threw his best troops into a second assault the same day, the Immortals , an elite corps of 10, men.

On the second day, Xerxes again sent in the infantry to attack the pass, "supposing that their enemies, being so few, were now disabled by wounds and could no longer resist.

Later that day, however, as the Persian king was pondering what to do next, he received a windfall; a Trachinian named Ephialtes informed him of the mountain path around Thermopylae and offered to guide the Persian army.

Herodotus reports that Xerxes sent his commander Hydarnes that evening, with the men under his command, the Immortals, to encircle the Greeks via the path.

However, he does not say who those men were. Anopaea behind the cliffs that flanked the pass. It branched, with one path leading to Phocis and the other down to the Malian Gulf at Alpenus, the first town of Locris.

At daybreak on the third day, the Phocians guarding the path above Thermopylae became aware of the outflanking Persian column by the rustling of oak leaves.

Herodotus says they jumped up and were greatly amazed. Learning from a runner that the Phocians had not held the path, Leonidas called a council of war at dawn.

While many of the Greeks took him up on his offer and fled, around two thousand soldiers stayed behind to fight and die.

Knowing that the end was near, the Greeks marched into the open field and met the Persians head-on. Many of the Greek contingents then either chose to withdraw without orders or were ordered to leave by Leonidas Herodotus admits that there is some doubt about which actually happened.

Leonidas' actions have been the subject of much discussion. It is commonly stated that the Spartans were obeying the laws of Sparta by not retreating.

It has also been proposed that the failure to retreat from Thermopylae gave rise to the notion that Spartans never retreated.

The most likely theory is that Leonidas chose to form a rearguard so that the other Greek contingents could get away.

If they had all remained at the pass, they would have been encircled and would eventually have all been killed. The Thebans have also been the subject of some discussion.

Herodotus suggests they were brought to the battle as hostages to ensure the good behavior of Thebes.

However, this alone does not explain the fact that they remained; the remainder of Thespiae was successfully evacuated before the Persians arrived there.

At dawn, Xerxes made libations , pausing to allow the Immortals sufficient time to descend the mountain, and then began his advance.

The Greeks this time sallied forth from the wall to meet the Persians in the wider part of the pass, in an attempt to slaughter as many Persians as they could.

Tearing down part of the wall, Xerxes ordered the hill surrounded, and the Persians rained down arrows until every last Greek was dead.

The pass at Thermopylae was thus opened to the Persian army, according to Herodotus, at the cost to the Persians of up to 20, fatalities.

When the Persians recovered Leonidas' body, Xerxes, in a rage, ordered that the body be decapitated and crucified.

Herodotus observes this was very uncommon for the Persians, as they traditionally treated "valiant warriors" with great honour the example of Pytheas, captured off Skiathos before the Battle of Artemisium , strengthens this suggestion.

Legend has it that he had the very water of the Hellespont whipped because it would not obey him.

After the Persians' departure, the Greeks collected their dead and buried them on the hill. After the Persian invasion was repulsed, a stone lion was erected at Thermopylae to commemorate Leonidas.

With Thermopylae now opened to the Persian army, the continuation of the blockade at Artemisium by the Greek fleet became irrelevant.

The simultaneous naval Battle of Artemisium had been a tactical stalemate, and the Greek navy was able to retreat in good order to the Saronic Gulf , where they helped to ferry the remaining Athenian citizens to the island of Salamis.

Following Thermopylae, the Persian army proceeded to sack and burn Plataea and Thespiae , the Boeotian cities that had not submitted, before it marched on the now evacuated city of Athens and accomplished the Achaemenid destruction of Athens.

Luring the Persian navy into the Straits of Salamis, the Greek fleet was able to destroy much of the Persian fleet in the Battle of Salamis , which essentially ended the threat to the Peloponnese.

Fearing the Greeks might attack the bridges across the Hellespont and trap his army in Europe, Xerxes now retreated with much of the Persian army back to Asia, [] though nearly all of them died of starvation and disease on the return voyage.

Thermopylae is arguably the most famous battle in European ancient history, repeatedly referenced in ancient, recent, and contemporary culture.

In Western culture at least, it is the Greeks who are lauded for their performance in battle. The battle itself had shown that even when heavily outnumbered, the Greeks could put up an effective fight against the Persians, and the defeat at Thermopylae had turned Leonidas and the men under his command into martyrs.

That boosted the morale of all Greek soldiers in the second Persian invasion. It is sometimes stated that Thermopylae was a Pyrrhic victory for the Persians [] [] i.

However, there is no suggestion by Herodotus that the effect on the Persian forces was that. The idea ignores the fact that the Persians would, in the aftermath of Thermopylae, conquer the majority of Greece, [] and the fact that they were still fighting in Greece a year later.

For instance, Cawkwell states: "he was successful on both land and sea, and the Great Invasion began with a brilliant success.

Xerxes had every reason to congratulate himself", [] while Lazenby describes the Greek defeat as "disastrous". The fame of Thermopylae is thus principally derived not from its effect on the outcome of the war but for the inspirational example it set.

So almost immediately, contemporary Greeks saw Thermopylae as a critical moral and culture lesson. In universal terms, a small, free people had willingly outfought huge numbers of imperial subjects who advanced under the lash.

More specifically, the Western idea that soldiers themselves decide where, how, and against whom they will fight was contrasted against the Eastern notion of despotism and monarchy—freedom proving the stronger idea as the more courageous fighting of the Greeks at Thermopylae, and their later victories at Salamis and Plataea attested.

While this paradigm of "free men" outfighting "slaves" can be seen as a rather sweeping over-generalization there are many counter-examples , it is nevertheless true that many commentators have used Thermopylae to illustrate this point.

Militarily, although the battle was actually not decisive in the context of the Persian invasion, Thermopylae is of some significance on the basis of the first two days of fighting.

The performance of the defenders is used as an example of the advantages of training, equipment, and good use of terrain as force multipliers.

There are several monuments around the battlefield of Thermopylae. One of which is a statue of King Leonidas I, portrayed as bearing a spear, and shield.

A well-known epigram , usually attributed to Simonides , was engraved as an epitaph on a commemorative stone placed on top of the burial mound of the Spartans at Thermopylae.

It is also the hill on which the last of them died. The text from Herodotus is: [70]. The form of this ancient Greek poetry is an elegiac couplet , commonly used for epitaphs.

Some English renderings are given in the table below. It is also an example of Laconian brevity , which allows for varying interpretations of the meaning of the poem.

It was well known in ancient Greece that all the Spartans who had been sent to Thermopylae had been killed there with the exception of Aristodemus and Pantites , and the epitaph exploits the conceit that there was nobody left to bring the news of their deeds back to Sparta.

Greek epitaphs often appealed to the passing reader always called 'stranger' for sympathy, but the epitaph for the dead Spartans at Thermopylae took this convention much further than usual, asking the reader to make a personal journey to Sparta to break the news that the Spartan expeditionary force had been wiped out.

The stranger is also asked to stress that the Spartans died 'fulfilling their orders'. A variant of the epigram is inscribed on the Polish Cemetery at Monte Cassino.

John Ruskin expressed the importance of this ideal to Western civilization as follows:. Also obedience in its highest form is not obedience to a constant and compulsory law, but a persuaded or voluntary yielded obedience to an issued command His name who leads the armies of Heaven is "Faithful and True" Cicero recorded a Latin variation in his Tusculanae Disputationes 1.

It features a bronze statue of Leonidas. The metope below depicts battle scenes. The two marble statues on the left and the right of the monument represent, respectively, the river Eurotas and Mount Taygetos , famous landmarks of Sparta.

In , a second monument was officially unveiled by the Greek government, dedicated to the Thespians who fought with the Spartans.

The monument is made of marble and features a bronze statue depicting the god Eros , to whom the ancient Thespians accorded particular religious veneration.

Under the statue, a sign reads: "In memory of the seven hundred Thespians. Herodotus' colorful account of the battle has provided history with many apocryphal incidents and conversations away from the main historical events.

These accounts are obviously not verifiable, but they form an integral part of the legend of the battle and often demonstrate the laconic speech and wit of the Spartans to good effect.

For instance, Plutarch recounts, in his Sayings of Spartan Women , upon his departure, Leonidas' wife Gorgo asked what she should do if he did not return, to which Leonidas replied, "Marry a good man and have good children.

It is reported that, upon arriving at Thermopylae, the Persians sent a mounted scout to reconnoitre. The Greeks allowed him to come up to the camp, observe them, and depart.

Xerxes found the scout's reports of the size of the Greek force, and that the Spartans were indulging in callisthenics and combing their long hair, laughable.

Seeking the counsel of Demaratus , an exiled Spartan king in his retinue, Xerxes was told the Spartans were preparing for battle, and it was their custom to adorn their hair when they were about to risk their lives.

Demaratus called them "the bravest men in Greece" and warned the Great King they intended to dispute the pass.

He emphasized that he had tried to warn Xerxes earlier in the campaign, but the king had refused to believe him. He added that if Xerxes ever managed to subdue the Spartans, "there is no other nation in all the world which will venture to lift a hand in their defence.

Herodotus also describes Leonidas' reception of a Persian envoy. The ambassador told Leonidas that Xerxes would offer him the kingship of all Greece if he joined with Xerxes.

Leonidas answered: "If you had any knowledge of the noble things of life, you would refrain from coveting others' possessions; but for me to die for Greece is better than to be the sole ruler over the people of my race.

Such laconic bravery doubtlessly helped to maintain morale. Herodotus writes that when Dienekes , a Spartan soldier, was informed that Persian arrows would be so numerous as "to block out the sun", he retorted, "So much the better After the battle, Xerxes was curious as to what the Greeks had been trying to do presumably because they had had so few men and had some Arcadian deserters interrogated in his presence.

The answer was: all the other men were participating in the Olympic Games. When Xerxes asked what the prize was for the winner, the answer was: "an olive-wreath".

Upon hearing this, Tigranes , a Persian general, said: "Good heavens, Mardonius , what kind of men are these that you have pitted against us?

It is not for riches that they contend but for honour! Men that fight not for gold, but for glory. The Battle of Thermopylae has remained a cultural icon of western civilization ever since it was fought.

TIME Magazine. Consultado el 7 de marzo City Journal. Consultado el 18 de marzo Archivado desde el original el 11 de marzo de Consultado el 15 de febrero de Thermopylae doesn't look remotely like Greece; it looks more like the inside of a computer game.

Archivado desde el original el 10 de mayo de Archivado desde el original el 28 de junio de Consultado el 26 de junio de Variety Reed Business Information.

Consultado el 30 de junio de Deadline Hollywood. Consultado el 27 de junio de Consultado el 17 de diciembre de Datos: Q Multimedia: film.

Vistas Leer Editar Ver historial. Wikimedia Commons. Larry Fong. Reina Gorgo. Rodrigo Carralero.

Mario Arvizu. Santi Lorenzo.

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The task force then moved on Eretria, which it besieged and destroyed. At the ensuing Battle of Marathon , the Athenians won a remarkable victory, which resulted in the withdrawal of the Persian army to Asia.

Darius, therefore, began raising a huge new army with which he meant to completely subjugate Greece; however, in BC, his Egyptian subjects revolted, indefinitely postponing any Greek expedition.

In the face of such imposing numbers, many Greek cities capitulated to the Persian demand for a tribute of earth and water.

The Athenians had also been preparing for war with the Persians since the mids BC, and in BC the decision was taken, under the guidance of the Athenian politician Themistocles , to build a massive fleet of triremes that would be essential for the Greeks to fight the Persians.

In BC, Xerxes sent ambassadors around Greece requesting "earth and water" but very deliberately omitting Athens and Sparta. A congress of city-states met at Corinth in late autumn of BC, [40] and a confederate alliance of Greek city-states was formed.

It had the power to send envoys to request assistance and dispatch troops from the member states to defensive points, after joint consultation.

This was remarkable for the disjointed and chaotic Greek world, especially since many of the city-states in attendance were still technically at war with each other.

The "congress" met again in the spring of BC. A Thessalian delegation suggested that the Greeks could muster in the narrow Vale of Tempe , on the borders of Thessaly, and thereby block Xerxes' advance.

However, once there, being warned by Alexander I of Macedon that the vale could be bypassed through Sarantoporo Pass and that Xerxes' army was overwhelming, the Greeks retreated.

Themistocles, therefore, suggested a second strategy to the Greeks: the route to southern Greece Boeotia, Attica, and the Peloponnesus would require Xerxes' army to travel through the very narrow pass of Thermopylae , which could easily be blocked by the Greek hoplites, despite the overwhelming numbers of Persians.

Congress adopted this dual-pronged strategy. The Persian army seems to have made slow progress through Thrace and Macedon.

News of the imminent Persian approach eventually reached Greece in August thanks to a Greek spy. During the Carneia, military activity was forbidden by Spartan law; the Spartans had arrived too late at the Battle of Marathon because of this requirement.

Leonidas took with him the men of the royal bodyguard, the Hippeis. The legend of Thermopylae, as told by Herodotus, has it that the Spartans had consulted the Oracle at Delphi earlier in the year.

The Oracle is said to have made the following prophecy :. O ye men who dwell in the streets of broad Lacedaemon! Honor the festival of the Carneia!!

Otherwise, Either your glorious town shall be sacked by the children of Perseus , Or, in exchange, must all through the whole Laconian country.

Mourn for the loss of a king, descendant of great Heracles. Herodotus tells us that Leonidas, in line with the prophecy, was convinced he was going to certain death since his forces were not adequate for a victory, and so he selected only Spartans with living sons.

The Spartan force was reinforced en route to Thermopylae by contingents from various cities and numbered more than 7, by the time it arrived at the pass.

Leonidas stationed 1, Phocians on the heights to prevent such a manoeuvre. Leonidas calmed the panic and agreed to defend Thermopylae.

Xerxes sent a Persian emissary to negotiate with Leonidas. The Greeks were offered their freedom, the title "Friends of the Persian People", and the opportunity to re-settle on land better than that they possessed.

Xerxes delayed for four days, waiting for the Greeks to disperse, before sending troops to attack them. The number of troops which Xerxes mustered for the second invasion of Greece has been the subject of endless dispute, most notably between ancient sources, which report very large numbers, and modern scholars, who surmise much smaller figures.

Herodotus claimed that there were, in total, 2. Modern scholars tend to reject the figures given by Herodotus and other ancient sources as unrealistic, resulting from miscalculations or exaggerations on the part of the victors.

Whatever the real numbers were, however, it is clear that Xerxes was anxious to ensure a successful expedition by mustering an overwhelming numerical superiority by land and by sea.

For instance, it is unclear whether the whole Persian army marched as far as Thermopylae, or whether Xerxes left garrisons in Macedon and Thessaly.

According to Herodotus [51] [67] and Diodorus Siculus , [68] the Greek army included the following forces:.

Pausanias ' account agrees with that of Herodotus whom he probably read except that he gives the number of Locrians, which Herodotus declined to estimate.

Residing in the direct path of the Persian advance, they gave all the fighting men they had - according to Pausanias 6, men - which added to Herodotus' 5, would have given a force of 11, Many modern historians, who usually consider Herodotus more reliable, [73] add the 1, Lacedemonians and the helots to Herodotus' 5, to obtain 7, or about 7, men as a standard number, neglecting Diodorus' Melians and Pausanias' Locrians.

Furthermore, the numbers changed later on in the battle when most of the army retreated and only approximately 3, men remained Spartans, Thespians, Thebans, possibly up to helots, and 1, Phocians stationed above the pass, less the casualties sustained in the previous days.

From a strategic point of view, by defending Thermopylae, the Greeks were making the best possible use of their forces.

Moreover, by defending two constricted passages Thermopylae and Artemisium , the Greeks' inferior numbers became less of a factor. Tactically, the pass at Thermopylae was ideally suited to the Greek style of warfare.

Moreover, in the pass, the phalanx would have been very difficult to assault for the more lightly armed Persian infantry. Although probably unsuitable for cavalry, this path could easily be traversed by the Persian infantry many of whom were versed in mountain warfare.

It is often claimed that at the time, the pass of Thermopylae consisted of a track along the shore of the Malian Gulf so narrow that only one chariot could pass through at a time.

Herodotus reports that the Phocians had improved the defences of the pass by channelling the stream from the hot springs to create a marsh, and it was a causeway across this marsh which was only wide enough for a single chariot to traverse.

In a later passage, describing a Gaulish attempt to force the pass, Pausanias states "The cavalry on both sides proved useless, as the ground at the Pass is not only narrow, but also smooth because of the natural rock, while most of it is slippery owing to its being covered with streams For the number of them that disappeared beneath the mud was great.

It is also said that on the southern side of the track stood cliffs that overlooked the pass.

However, a glance at any photograph of the pass shows there are no cliffs, only steep slopes covered in thorny bushes and trees.

Although no obstacle to individuals, such terrain would not be passable by an army and its baggage train.

On the north side of the roadway was the Malian Gulf , into which the land shelved gently. When at a later date, an army of Gauls led by Brennus attempted to force the pass, the shallowness of the water gave the Greek fleet great difficulty getting close enough to the fighting to bombard the Gauls with ship-borne missile weapons.

Along the path itself was a series of three constrictions, or "gates" pylai , and at the centre gate a wall that had been erected by the Phocians, in the previous century, to aid in their defence against Thessalian invasions.

The terrain of the battlefield was nothing that Xerxes and his forces were accustomed to. Although coming from a mountainous country, the Persians were not prepared for the real nature of the country they had invaded.

The pure ruggedness of this area is caused by torrential downpours for four months of the year, combined with an intense summer season of scorching heat that cracks the ground.

Vegetation is scarce and consists of low, thorny shrubs. The hillsides along the pass are covered in thick brush, with some plants reaching 10 feet 3.

With the sea on one side and steep, impassable hills on the other, King Leonidas and his men chose the perfect topographical position to battle the Persian invaders.

Today, the pass is not near the sea, but is several kilometres inland because of sedimentation in the Malian Gulf. The old track appears at the foot of the hills around the plain, flanked by a modern road.

On the fifth day after the Persian arrival at Thermopylae and the first day of the battle, Xerxes finally resolved to attack the Greeks.

First, he ordered 5, archers to shoot a barrage of arrows, but they were ineffective; they shot from at least yards away, according to modern day scholars, and the Greeks' wooden shields sometimes covered with a very thin layer of bronze and bronze helmets deflected the arrows.

According to Herodotus and Diodorus, the king, having taken the measure of the enemy, threw his best troops into a second assault the same day, the Immortals , an elite corps of 10, men.

On the second day, Xerxes again sent in the infantry to attack the pass, "supposing that their enemies, being so few, were now disabled by wounds and could no longer resist.

Later that day, however, as the Persian king was pondering what to do next, he received a windfall; a Trachinian named Ephialtes informed him of the mountain path around Thermopylae and offered to guide the Persian army.

Herodotus reports that Xerxes sent his commander Hydarnes that evening, with the men under his command, the Immortals, to encircle the Greeks via the path.

However, he does not say who those men were. Anopaea behind the cliffs that flanked the pass. It branched, with one path leading to Phocis and the other down to the Malian Gulf at Alpenus, the first town of Locris.

At daybreak on the third day, the Phocians guarding the path above Thermopylae became aware of the outflanking Persian column by the rustling of oak leaves.

Herodotus says they jumped up and were greatly amazed. Learning from a runner that the Phocians had not held the path, Leonidas called a council of war at dawn.

While many of the Greeks took him up on his offer and fled, around two thousand soldiers stayed behind to fight and die. Knowing that the end was near, the Greeks marched into the open field and met the Persians head-on.

Many of the Greek contingents then either chose to withdraw without orders or were ordered to leave by Leonidas Herodotus admits that there is some doubt about which actually happened.

Leonidas' actions have been the subject of much discussion. It is commonly stated that the Spartans were obeying the laws of Sparta by not retreating.

It has also been proposed that the failure to retreat from Thermopylae gave rise to the notion that Spartans never retreated.

The most likely theory is that Leonidas chose to form a rearguard so that the other Greek contingents could get away.

If they had all remained at the pass, they would have been encircled and would eventually have all been killed.

The Thebans have also been the subject of some discussion. Herodotus suggests they were brought to the battle as hostages to ensure the good behavior of Thebes.

However, this alone does not explain the fact that they remained; the remainder of Thespiae was successfully evacuated before the Persians arrived there.

At dawn, Xerxes made libations , pausing to allow the Immortals sufficient time to descend the mountain, and then began his advance.

The Greeks this time sallied forth from the wall to meet the Persians in the wider part of the pass, in an attempt to slaughter as many Persians as they could.

Tearing down part of the wall, Xerxes ordered the hill surrounded, and the Persians rained down arrows until every last Greek was dead.

The pass at Thermopylae was thus opened to the Persian army, according to Herodotus, at the cost to the Persians of up to 20, fatalities.

When the Persians recovered Leonidas' body, Xerxes, in a rage, ordered that the body be decapitated and crucified.

Herodotus observes this was very uncommon for the Persians, as they traditionally treated "valiant warriors" with great honour the example of Pytheas, captured off Skiathos before the Battle of Artemisium , strengthens this suggestion.

Legend has it that he had the very water of the Hellespont whipped because it would not obey him. After the Persians' departure, the Greeks collected their dead and buried them on the hill.

After the Persian invasion was repulsed, a stone lion was erected at Thermopylae to commemorate Leonidas. With Thermopylae now opened to the Persian army, the continuation of the blockade at Artemisium by the Greek fleet became irrelevant.

The simultaneous naval Battle of Artemisium had been a tactical stalemate, and the Greek navy was able to retreat in good order to the Saronic Gulf , where they helped to ferry the remaining Athenian citizens to the island of Salamis.

Following Thermopylae, the Persian army proceeded to sack and burn Plataea and Thespiae , the Boeotian cities that had not submitted, before it marched on the now evacuated city of Athens and accomplished the Achaemenid destruction of Athens.

Luring the Persian navy into the Straits of Salamis, the Greek fleet was able to destroy much of the Persian fleet in the Battle of Salamis , which essentially ended the threat to the Peloponnese.

Fearing the Greeks might attack the bridges across the Hellespont and trap his army in Europe, Xerxes now retreated with much of the Persian army back to Asia, [] though nearly all of them died of starvation and disease on the return voyage.

Thermopylae is arguably the most famous battle in European ancient history, repeatedly referenced in ancient, recent, and contemporary culture.

In Western culture at least, it is the Greeks who are lauded for their performance in battle. The battle itself had shown that even when heavily outnumbered, the Greeks could put up an effective fight against the Persians, and the defeat at Thermopylae had turned Leonidas and the men under his command into martyrs.

That boosted the morale of all Greek soldiers in the second Persian invasion. It is sometimes stated that Thermopylae was a Pyrrhic victory for the Persians [] [] i.

However, there is no suggestion by Herodotus that the effect on the Persian forces was that.

The idea ignores the fact that the Persians would, in the aftermath of Thermopylae, conquer the majority of Greece, [] and the fact that they were still fighting in Greece a year later.

For instance, Cawkwell states: "he was successful on both land and sea, and the Great Invasion began with a brilliant success.

Xerxes had every reason to congratulate himself", [] while Lazenby describes the Greek defeat as "disastrous". The fame of Thermopylae is thus principally derived not from its effect on the outcome of the war but for the inspirational example it set.

So almost immediately, contemporary Greeks saw Thermopylae as a critical moral and culture lesson.

In universal terms, a small, free people had willingly outfought huge numbers of imperial subjects who advanced under the lash.

More specifically, the Western idea that soldiers themselves decide where, how, and against whom they will fight was contrasted against the Eastern notion of despotism and monarchy—freedom proving the stronger idea as the more courageous fighting of the Greeks at Thermopylae, and their later victories at Salamis and Plataea attested.

While this paradigm of "free men" outfighting "slaves" can be seen as a rather sweeping over-generalization there are many counter-examples , it is nevertheless true that many commentators have used Thermopylae to illustrate this point.

Militarily, although the battle was actually not decisive in the context of the Persian invasion, Thermopylae is of some significance on the basis of the first two days of fighting.

The performance of the defenders is used as an example of the advantages of training, equipment, and good use of terrain as force multipliers.

There are several monuments around the battlefield of Thermopylae. One of which is a statue of King Leonidas I, portrayed as bearing a spear, and shield.

A well-known epigram , usually attributed to Simonides , was engraved as an epitaph on a commemorative stone placed on top of the burial mound of the Spartans at Thermopylae.

It is also the hill on which the last of them died. The text from Herodotus is: [70]. The form of this ancient Greek poetry is an elegiac couplet , commonly used for epitaphs.

Some English renderings are given in the table below. It is also an example of Laconian brevity , which allows for varying interpretations of the meaning of the poem.

It was well known in ancient Greece that all the Spartans who had been sent to Thermopylae had been killed there with the exception of Aristodemus and Pantites , and the epitaph exploits the conceit that there was nobody left to bring the news of their deeds back to Sparta.

Greek epitaphs often appealed to the passing reader always called 'stranger' for sympathy, but the epitaph for the dead Spartans at Thermopylae took this convention much further than usual, asking the reader to make a personal journey to Sparta to break the news that the Spartan expeditionary force had been wiped out.

The stranger is also asked to stress that the Spartans died 'fulfilling their orders'. A variant of the epigram is inscribed on the Polish Cemetery at Monte Cassino.

John Ruskin expressed the importance of this ideal to Western civilization as follows:. Also obedience in its highest form is not obedience to a constant and compulsory law, but a persuaded or voluntary yielded obedience to an issued command His name who leads the armies of Heaven is "Faithful and True" Cicero recorded a Latin variation in his Tusculanae Disputationes 1.

It features a bronze statue of Leonidas. The metope below depicts battle scenes. The two marble statues on the left and the right of the monument represent, respectively, the river Eurotas and Mount Taygetos , famous landmarks of Sparta.

In , a second monument was officially unveiled by the Greek government, dedicated to the Thespians who fought with the Spartans.

In the Battle of Thermopylae of BC an alliance of Greek city-states fought the invading Persian army in the mountain pass of Thermopylae.

Vastly outnumbered, the Greeks held back the enemy in one of the most famous last stands of history. Persian King Xerxes led a Army of well over , Persian king Xerxes before war has about , army men to Greece and was confronted by Spartans, Thespians, and Thebans.

Xerxes waited for 10 days for King Leonidas to surrender or withdraw but left with no options he pushed forward.

After 3 days of battle all the Greeks were killed. The Spartan defeat was not the one expected, as a local shepherd, named Ephialtes, defected to the Persians and informed Xerxes that the separate path through Thermopylae, which the Persians could use to outflank the Greeks, was not as heavily guarded as they thought.

Written by cyberian Really enjoyed it. Don't get caught up in all the anti hype. Enjoy it for what it is which is a good tale, great action scenes, if not a little over done , great war film acting and above all, a moral tale for today's age.

As for the historical angle and the comparison against the old film, try to enjoy this one as a modern updated version not unknown for its up to date and cgi'd feel.

Its the sort of film which made me want to find out about the Spartans and this particular period. Sad of me?

Maybe, but I don't mind, it was great fun. Enjoy, I certainly did. Sign In. Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends.

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Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Gerard Butler King Leonidas Lena Headey Queen Gorgo Dominic West Theron David Wenham Dilios Vincent Regan Captain Michael Fassbender Stelios Tom Wisdom Astinos Andrew Pleavin Daxos Andrew Tiernan Ephialtes Rodrigo Santoro Xerxes Giovani Cimmino Loyalist Greg Kramer Ephor 1 Alex Ivanovici

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